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Writing a Bibliography: APA Format-standard formats and examples

Writing a Bibliography: APA Format-standard formats and examples

Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http.org that is://www.apastyle.

Your variety of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a page that is new the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, making use of the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the initials for the first and names that are middle given. An, or The if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A.

For dates, spell out of the names of months into the text of your paper, but abbreviate them within the list of works cited, with the exception of May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and start to become consistent. Because of the style that is month-day-year make sure to add a comma following the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.

Underlining or Italics?

When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined since most typewriters had no way to print italics. In the event that you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you utilize some type of computer, then publication names must be in italics as they are below. Check always with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.

Hanging Indentation

All APA citations should use hanging indents, this is certainly, the very first line of an entry should really be left that is flush and also the second and subsequent lines should always be indented 1/2″.

Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation

The APA guidelines specify using capitalization that is sentence-style the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule would be titles that are periodical proper names in a title that should still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and it is followed closely by the volume number which, with all the title, can also be italicized.

If there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) prior to the name regarding the last author. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the remainder.

Position the date of publication in parentheses soon after the true name of this author. Place a period of time after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes round the titles of shorter works within longer works.

Format Examples

Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of The United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.

Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a reputation for the heroes regarding the imagination. New York: Random House.

Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating pay for essay tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.

Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.

Encyclopedia & Dictionary

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the encyclopedia that is new (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.

Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.

Magazine & Newspaper Articles

Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.

Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put an interval after the title. Then provide the page range (in regular type) without “pp. if a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, such as newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Kalette, D. (1986, 21) july. California town counts town to quake that is big. USA Today, 9, p. A1.

Kanfer, S. (1986, 21) july. Heard any books that are good? Time, 113, 71-72.

Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.

Website or Webpage

Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL

Note: When citing Internet sources, relate to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) right after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that would go to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually check your references to online documents. There isn’t any period following a URL. Note: If you cannot find a few of this information, cite what is available.

Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january

Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html june

Note: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.

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